Baekeland and Hartmann report that the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.
In general, these “short sleepers” appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist (不动摇) in their opinions, and were very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or worked full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear “normal” or “acceptable” to their friends and associates.
When asked to recall their dreams, the “short sleepers” did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away.
The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic (疯人).
The “long sleepers” were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleepers since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the “short sleepers”.
Many of the “long sleepers” were shy, anxious, introverted (内向), inhibited (压抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly state that sleep was an escape from their daily problems.
1. According to the report, ______.
A. many short sleepers need less sleep by nature
B. many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work
C. long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day
D. many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood
2. Many “short sleepers” are likely to hold the view that ______.
A. sleep is a withdrawal from the reality
B. sleep interferes with their sound judgement
C. sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program
D. sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles
3. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers ______.
A. are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life
B. often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep
C. do not know how to relax properly
D. are more unlikely to run into mental problems
4. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might ______.
A. appear disturbed
B. become energetic
C. feel dissatisfied
D. be extremely depressed
5. Which of the following is NOT included in the passage?
A. If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened.
B. The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the same as those shown by many mental patients.
C. Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep.
D. Short sleepers would be better off with more rest.